Nationally recognized scholars address the unique problems encountered by minority elders in achieving the goal of maximum well-being as we enter the 21st century. Topics include physical health, continuum of care, mental health, social policy, economic security and research planning and development. Minority populations surveyed include the elderly African American, Asian American, American Indian, Mexican American and women.
In daily practice, family physicians are encountering an increasing number of older patients, many of whom are African American. Currently, African Americans elder make up almost 8 percent of the population older than 65, a percentage that is expected to reach 8.6 percent by 2010. So issues regarding African American elder health care should be given importance if african american want to increase their life expectancy. Once African Americans reach age 85, their life expectancy is an additional 8.2 years for men and 10.6 years for women, compared with 5.5 and 7.2 years for white men and women, respectively. African-American elders are a heterogeneous group, with backgrounds from north and south of the Mason-Dixon line and both sides of the Mississippi . This population includes people who have migrated from the Caribbean basin and the African continent.
Providing african american elder health care or health care for such a varied group requires special attention to some specific concerns. Yet, because of this diversity, no study or series of findings fits every older African American. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating each older African-American patient as an individual. Nonetheless, physicians should use the remarks in this article as "points to consider" when managing health care for older African Americans. This article concentrates on special concerns related to the doctor-patient relationship, socioeconomic issues, care-giving issues, functional health and the assessment of cognitive and emotional health. Special considerations in selected disease conditions are discussed.
Expertise in skills, knowledge, and values of all aspects of monitoring, overseeing, supervising staff, and fostering adaptations within organizations/programs that provide any kind of services relating to health and/or aging, with a special emphasis on services to Native Americans. Planning as specialized function in organizations may be the responsibility of an administrator or other staff persons supervised by him/her.
As defined in the Older Americans Act (OAA) - These services are usually provided by an individual or agency experienced in case-management.
The purpose of case-management is to assess the older individual's needs and to arrange, coordinate, and monitor an optimum package of services to meet the needs, of the older individual. Case-management typically includes comprehensive assessment of physical, psychological, functional, social/economic and environmental needs. The plan of care that is relevant to the needs of the older adult and may include any or all of the following services: non- professional support, community referral, and appropriate community placement. Case-management includes the periodic reassessment of the clients needs and plan of care and on-going co- ordination.